Paper Terminologies

ABSORBENCY
Ability of paper or board to retain liquid solutions like printing inks, varnishes and other special chemicals.

ABSORBENT PAPERS

Term for soft, loosely felted and bibulous papers that absorb water, solutions or special chemicals. Types of these papers include duplicator, blotting and filter papers as well as drying royal, matrix paper and towel paper.

ACCEPTED STOCK

That part of the stock which is not rejected by cleaning and/or screening.

ACID FREE

A term describing paper and board that can be used with anything that may be tarnished or otherwise harmed by acid.

ACTUAL WEIGHT

The actual weight of a ream or reams of paper or a bundle or number of bundles of board.

ADHESIVE PAPER

Paper coated with adhesive that is either water activated, solvent activated, heat activated or pressure sensitive.

ARCHIVAL PAPER

A paper that is acid free, lignin free, usually with good color retention and long-standing qualities.

BASE PAPER

Low-cost lightweight white paper usually used for advertising leaflets and flyers.

BIBLE PAPER

A lightweight opaque bookpaper used in bibles, missals, encyclopediae, notebooks and other voluminous printed materials. Aside from printability, the most important properties of this paper are sheet strength and reasonable permanence.

BRIGHTNESS

The measurement of a paper's light-reflective qualities that affect contrast and halftone reproduction in white papers. For instance, paper with 85% brightness reflects 85% of the light that strikes it. Brightness increases the contrast between the ink and the paper making document easier to read.

BULK

Paper thickness in relation to its weight. High bulk paper is thicker than low bulk paper, but not heavier. (See also: Caliper.)

CALENDERING

The process of running paper between polished steel rolls on the paper machine to produce a desired smoothness. (Superior smoothness and gloss can also be accomplished off machine by supercalender equipment.)

CALIPER

The thickness of a sheet, or stack of sheets of paper, expressed in thousandths of mils; also referred to as Bulk.

CARBONLESS PAPER

Papers with special coatings that transfer the impression of a written character from one part of a form set to another through a chemical reaction; copies are formed without the need of an intermediate sheet of carbon paper.

CARBON PAPER

Paper coated with a mixture of carbon or other coloring matter used for duplication.

CARRIER BOARD

A coated board that is colored white on one side and colored brown on the other side, has the wet-strength to accommodate freezer storage.

CHIP BOARD

A board made from waste paper used mainly in packaging, usually colored gray.

CLAYCOATED BOARD

A board in which a special clay mixture has been applied to, white-colored on one side and gray-colored on the other side.

COATED PAPERS

Paper to which a coating has been applied on one or both sides, using a mix of clay or carbonates and latex to create a high quality printing surface.

COATED BOARD

Board to which coating has been applied to its two sides, it has a shiny finish perfect for printing desk calendars, medicine boxes and the like.

CONVERTING

A manufacturing plant which uses paper to make paper-based products, such as packaging or consumer products.

CORRUGATED BOARD

Consists of one or more sheets of fluted paper stuck between fiat sheets of paper or board.

CURL

Deformation of a sheet of paper or board over all its surface, which therefore tends to roll up into the form of a cylinder.

DIGITAL PRINTING

Digital printing is defined as a printing job at least 30 sheets per minute directly from a database on to the paper. In its most simple form , a digital printing unit consists of a work station, a raster image processor ( RIP ) and a printer.

DUPLEX BOARD

A multi ply construction of a board made predominately from mechanical pulp but with a bleached chemical pulp liner. Also known as Foldcote.

EMBOSSED PAPER

Textured paper.

FOLDCOTE

A brand name for duplex boards.

FORMATION

The manner in which the fibers of a sheet of paper or board are distributed, disposed and intermixed to constitute the sheet.

GLASSINE PAPER

Supercalendered, smooth, dense paper which has a high resistance to grease, the passage of air and essential oil vapors.

GOLDEN KRAFT

Unbleached, sulfate-processed paper that is yellowish in color.

GRAIN

Direction of fibers in a sheet of paper. Long grain describes fibers running parallel to the longest side of a sheet. Short grain running parallel to the short side.

GRAMMAGE

Mass per unit are in gsm

GREASEPROOF PAPER

Protective wrapping paper resistant to oil and grease; used for wrapping greasy food products.

HANDMADE

Paper made manually by hand. A papermaker dips a mould into the pulp vat and taking up sufficient stock to form a sheet of paper of the required substances. Drained pulp is left to dry producing paper.

INKJET PRINTER

Creates images by ejecting tiny droplets of ink onto paper.

KRAFT PAPER

Solid pulp paper produced by the sulfate process with or without bleaching.

KRAFT MEDIUM

Kraft board used to make boxes, it sandwiches and holds corrugated boards in place.

KROMEKOTE PAPER

Paper manufactured with a super shiny surface as if it had a laminated finish.

KROMEKOTE COVER

A board with a laminated finish usually used for covers of books, brochures and annual reports.

LAID

Papers with a ribbed appearance produced by a mould or dandy roll which has wires parallel to each other and not woven.

LAMINATION

The combination of two or more materials using a bonding agent.

LASER PRINTER

A high quality image printing system using a laser beam to produce an image on a photosensitive drum. The image is transferred on to paper by a conventional xerographic printing process.

LINER BOARD

Board used packaging, wrapping and lining boxes.

MACHINE CALENDER

On-line machine for giving paper a very smooth surface and a very precise caliber by passing it through one or more nips formed by a set of iron rolls.

MACHINE COATED

Paper or board, which is pigment coated at the end of the paper or board-making machine.

MACHINE DIRECTION

The direction of a sheet or web of paper corresponding with the direction of the flow of stuff on the paper machine.

MATT COATED PAPER
Paper where a special coating is applied to provide a superior printing surface minus the shine.

MECHANICAL PULP

Pulp made by the grinding of steamed or boiled groundwood (without the addition of chemical agents).

MECHANICAL PRINTING PAPERS

Mechanical papers contain 25-100% mechanical pulp depending on the paper grade- usually more than 50 % .

MICROMETER

An instrument for measuring small distances accurately, e.g. the thickness of paper.

MOISTURE CONTENT

the percentage of moisture found in finished paper

MOROCCO COVER

A brand name for a coverboard with a leatherlike embossed design.

OFFCUT

Paper of usable size obtained as a by-product when larger sheets or reels are cut down to the size of the order.

OFFSET PRINTING

Printing using a press and plate in which the image is transferred to a rubber blanket which in turn offsets the image onto a sheet of paper. This type of printing can print continuous tone images.

OPACITY

The amount of light that penetrates the paper and therefore the degree to which type shows through from the other side of the paper. Usually, the lower the basis weight, the less opacity.

PAPER GRADES

Paper is classified into different grades according to the end use, the pulp used and the treatment of the paper.

PARCHMENT PAPER

Stiff, durable paper meant to imitate goat or sheepskin, usually used for diplomas and invitations.

PASTEBOARD

A thicker kind of chipboard, usually used in bookbinding preparations.

PULP WOOD

Raw material used for making paper.
REAM
The number of sheets of paper ranging from 480 to 516, most commonly 500.

RECYCLED FIBER

A fiber made from paper. Such fiber can be re-used 4 to 7 times. A good example of it's use is the production of newsprint and carton / corrugated box.

SACKKRAFT

A stronger and much thicker kraft paper with wet-strength, usually used as cement bags.

SIZE OR SIZING

The process by which gelatin rosin, starch or other synthetic substance is added to paper to provide resistance to the absorption of moisture or eliminating ink feathering and bleed through. Sizing added to the beater or vat of pulp is known as internal sizing. After a sheet is formed, it may be either surface sized (painted or brushed on the surface), or tub sized (immersed in a bath).

SUBSTANCE

The weight of a single sheet of one square meter (g/m²)

SUPERCALENDER

Machine for giving paper a very smooth surface by passing it through a series of alternate metal and composition rolls, revolving with high speed and pressure.

SYNTHETIC PAPER

A high grade paper with the finish of plastic. Made from a mixture of paper and special film, this paper's properties include amazing strength and high opacity at low weight and low density. Unlike plastics, this paper is environmentally friendly as it leaves no residue when discarded or burned.

THICKNESS

The distance between surfaces of one sheet in micrometers (µm)

TISSUE PAPER

Absorbent paper used for a variety of hygienic purposes.

WALLBOARD

A thicker variety of a pasteboard.

WATERMARK

Designs impressed into paper while in course of manufacture by means of a projecting wire, on the mould, or in the case of machine made qualities on the dandy roll. Watermarks serve to identify the product of a paper mill and the designs chosen also express emblematically the tenets of the manufacturers.

WAVINESS

Waviness occurs when the outer edges of paper sheets retain more moisture from the air than the center of the sheets, or vice versa.

WET STRENGTH

Used to describe the property of papers that can retain an appreciable percentage of their mechanical strength after soaking in water. These types of papers are made by the addition of a resin to the stock during paper manufacture. This resin cements the fibers together and the bond tends to improve with age.

WHITENESS

The visual appearance of white paper especially when it contains fluorescent whitening agents. It is based on reflectance data obtained over the full visual spectrum.

WOODFREE PAPERS

Woodfree papers, or chemical pulp based papers, are made of bleached chemical pulp, containing less than 10 % of mechanical pulp.

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